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    生长-肥育猪对豆制品营养物质消化率的研究

    发布单位:yabo亚博体育-官网

    查看次数:145

    时间:2019-10-28

    大豆不只是可以经过溶剂萃取获得豆粕(SBM),SBM或者大豆再经过进一步的加工还可以产生一系列的其他豆制品。为了在猪饲料中确定这些豆制品的添加量,需要对其可消化氨基酸(AA)的概况和能量值进行评估。进一步的加工处理如:膨化(EX)过程、机械加热(TM)处理、采用发酵或者酶处理进行生物转化(BC)、乙醇-水萃取(EW)。
    试验共选用9种豆制品(SBM、EX1、EX2和TM1、TM2、BC1、BC2以及EW1、EW2)进行研究;添加到玉米淀粉基础日粮中,额外添加一组无氮日粮,一共10个日粮处理组。试验选择10头回肠瘘管猪只(初始体重为30.4 ± 0.7 kg),饲喂10种试验日粮,日粮包含2.8倍可消化的维持能,进行6个阶段(每个阶段9天)的试验。
    检验得出,对照组SBM包含47.0% CP、1.4%乙醚提取物和6.0%ADF;9种豆制品的粗蛋白(CP)含量为35.6~66.4%、乙醚提取物水平为0.9~21.6%,以及4.4~8.0%ADF;EW豆制品CP含量高(> 61%),EX2豆制品CP含量低(< 36%),但EX2豆制品乙醚提取物水平高(≥ 19%);化学方法获得赖氨酸(Lys)水平为总Lys的92.6~100%,说明在加工过程中Lys有少量损失。
    数据显示,与SBM和其他豆制品组比较,含有高乙醚提取物和ADF的豆制品组能量表观总肠道消化率(ATTD)降低(P < 0.05);除了EX2和BC1组日粮中Arg、Ile、Leu、Lys、Phe、和Tyr的标准回肠消化率(SID)降低(P < 0.05),各豆制品日粮组中多数AA的SID没有差异(P > 0.05);各豆制品日粮组间DE和预测的NE值没有差异(P > 0.05);与SBM组比较,EW、BC和TM1日粮组SID的AA含量显著增加(P < 0.05),可能是因为排除其他大量营养素后总AA含量增加了。
    综上所述,与SBM比较,大豆膨化增加了豆制品的能值,但是降低了能量的ATTD和AA的SID。SBM进一步加工之后的豆制品CP和SID的AA含量增加,但是AA的SID与SBM没有差异。因此,在猪只日粮中添加进一步加工的SBM和大豆能够增加原料的价值,特别是对营养物质要求更高的幼龄猪只。

    Nutrient digestibility of soybean products in grower-finisher pigs
    Solvent extraction of soybean creates soybean meal (SBM), but an array of other soybean products can be created using further processing of SBM or soybean. For accurate inclusion of these products in pig feed, characterization of digestible AA profile and energy value is required. Soybean products from processes such as extrusion (EX) of soybean and thermo-mechanical (TM) treatment, bioconversion using fermentation or enzymes (BC), and ethanol-water extraction (EW) of soybean meal were collected together with SBM. These 9 soybean products were tested in cornstarch-based diets together with an N-free diet for a total of 10 diets. Ten ileal-cannulated barrows (30.4 ± 0.7 kg initial BW) were fed 10 diets at 2.8 times maintenance DE for six 9-d periods with a 6 (periods) × 10 (pigs) Youden square. The control SBM contained 47.0% CP, 1.4% ether extract, and ADF 6.0%. The 9 soybean products contained 35.6% to 66.4% CP, 0.9% to 21.6% ether extract, and 4.4% to 8.0% ADF. The EW soybean products were high in CP (>61%), whereas the 2 EX soybean products were low in CP (<36%) but high in ether extract (≥19%). Chemically available Lys ranged from 92.6% to 100% of total Lys, indicating that minor Lys damage occurred during processing. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy was lower (P < 0.05) for soybean products with greater ether extract and ADF content than SBM, and varied among soybean products. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) did not differ (P > 0.05) among soybean products for most AA, except for lower SID of Arg, Ile, Leu, Lys, Phe, and Tyr (P < 0.05) for EX2 and BC1 than other soybean products. The DE and predicted NE value did not differ (P > 0.05) among soybean products. The greater SID AA content (P < 0.05) in EW, BC, and TM1 soybean products than SBM was mainly a result of greater total AA content due to removal of other macronutrients. In conclusion, extrusion of soybean creates soybean products with a greater energy value but lower ATTD of energy and lower SID AA content than SBM. 
    Further processing of SBM creates soybean products with greater CP and SID AA content but similar SID of AA than SBM. Thus, new technologies to process SBM or soybean create high-value ingredients to be included in pig diets, especially for young pigs with high nutritional requirements.

    文章来源:猪营养国际论坛
    【免责声明】:文章来源于网络,我们对文中陈述观点判断保持中立,并不对文章观点负责。仅供读者参考。版权属于原作者。

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